Immunological and Immunogenetic Changes in Children with Autistic Disorder in Republic of Macedonia

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Mirko Zhivko Spiroski


AIM: The aim of the study was to present our results about immunological and immunogenetic investigations in children with autistic disorder in Republic of Macedonia.

METHODS: Infantile autism was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma samples were collected from 35 autistic subjects, and their 21 siblings (biological brothers and sisters) who served as healthy controls. Plasma samples were separated by centrifugation and stored at –20°C until the determination. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) were determined using a nephelometer Analyzer. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies against some food allergens, as well as total IgE have been determined with automated immunofluorescent device with solid phase - UniCAP 100 (AmershamBiosciences). HLA DNA typing of class I genes was performed using a Reverse Line Strip method (RLS), and the Sequencing Based Typing method (SBT) was used for typing of class II genes.

RESULTS: Children with autism had significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgG4 (p<0.001) compared to their siblings (healthy brothers or sisters). IgE specific antibodies, as well as plasma concentration of total IgE were statistically significant higher in plasma of participants with autism. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0.001), and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0.001). Our results showed significantly increased frequencies of HLA-C*03 (OR = 2.74*; c2= 4.68; p = 0.03), and HLA-DRB1*01 (OR = 3.10*; c2= 6.26; p = 0.012) alleles in autistic patients when compared to the controls.

CONCLUSION: Children with autism have increased plasma concentration of immunoglobulines. Our results demonstrate an association of HLA-C*03 and HLA-DRB1*01 alleles with Macedonian autistic patients. Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.


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How to Cite
Spiroski, M. Z. (2015). Immunological and Immunogenetic Changes in Children with Autistic Disorder in Republic of Macedonia. South East European Journal of Immunology (SEEJIM), 1(1), 1–8.
Basic Immunology
Author Biography

Mirko Zhivko Spiroski, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

Dr Mirko Spiroski is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. He is a graduate of the Skopje Faculty of Medicine (1972), where he later obtained his MSc (1978), and PhD (1989) degrees. He is the founder and first Director of the Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje and acts as a tutor of the Medical Scientific Club "Acad. Dimitar Arsov". He introduced several subjects in the curricula at the Faculties of Medicine (Immunology and Human genetics), Natural Sciences (Immunochemistry with basic immunology, Biochemistry-3, Immunogenetics), Physical Education (Genetics in sport), and in the Master of Sciences postgraduate program in Public Health (Public health genetics). His research interest is immunology, but he has also published in the fields of molecular anthropology and human genetics. He was Secretary general and Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal Godishen zbornik na Medicinski Fakultet Skopje, and Editor-in-Chief of the Macedonian Journal of Medicine.


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