Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Blood Transfusion, Injecting Drug Use, Piercing, and Tatto in Indonesia

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Erika Martining Wardani
Riezky Faisal Nugroho


BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a public health problem worldwide. HIV transmission occurs through several modes of transmission. One of the intermediaries for transmission is through blood transfusions, IDU (injecting drug use) with sharing needles or not (sterile), especially among injecting drug users, as well as piercing and tattoos.

AIM: The purpose of the study was to analyze risk factors for HIV: Blood transfusion, IDU, piercing, and tatto in Indonesia.

METHODS: The research design was cross-sectional. The population of all individuals with HIV who are included in the blood transfusion, IDU, piercing, and tattoo users at the Kompeda City Surabaya Foundation is 183 people with 100 respondence using simple random sampling technique. The instrument used is a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by double linear regression test.

RESULTS: The results of multivariate analysis showed that blood transfusion (p = 0.01), injecting drug use (p = 0.00), piercing (p = 0.01), and tattoo (p = 0.01) factors significantly influenced the incidence of HIV. R Square of the five factors is 0.000.

CONCLUSION: Risk factors such as blood transfusions, injecting drug use (IDU), piercings, and tattoos are factors that cause HIV. Preventive efforts can be made to prevent HIV risk factors through education by implementing the health promotion model about HIV/AIDS as well as prevention and transmission that can suppress the spread of HIV/AIDS.


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Wardani EM, Nugroho RF. Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Blood Transfusion, Injecting Drug Use, Piercing, and Tatto in Indonesia. SEE J Immunol [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 20 [cited 2023 Sep. 22];6(1):34-8. Available from: https://seejim.eu/index.php/seejim/article/view/6034
Clinical Immunology


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